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Other relationships were not self-evident
but nevertheless interesting. The CISS category "Woodworking" correlated
significantly with several Agreeableness facets, for example: Warmth .18,
Cooperation .21, Sympathy .23, and Tenderness .27. As a hobby, the author
(McConochie) builds furniture. He recalls that while building a dining
table he had thoughts of wanting to please other people with the resulting
product. One of the Tenderness items is "Want to please others."
The percent of AB5C scales that correlate significantly with each of the CISS career categories are presented in Appendix II. The average percent was 55 (27.5 personality scales per career area).
Multiple regressions of the five most predictive personality facets to CISS skill scores consistently yield moderate to strong correlations, with both career area scores and individual CISS items.
CISS Skill Career Area Score Highest AB5C
Facet that Correlates: on top 5 Facets
Influencing Leadership (.58) .66
Organizing Assertiveness (.39) .50
Helping Intellect (.38) .54
Creating........................................... Imagination (.49)........................................ .63
Analyzing Creativity (.47) .58
Producing Creativity (.22) .38
Adventuring Cooperation (.36)........................................ .52
Selected CISS Items:
158 Make sales calls Sociability (.25) .39
160 Manage...others. Assertiveness (.32) .42
166 Persuade others to adopt Leadership (.38) .48
174 Repair automobiles. Tenderness (.23) .39
179 Private secretary work Tenderness (.22).......................................... .34
184 Supervising clerical.. Perfectionism (.19) .31
11 Carpenter, building Imperturbability (.18) .31
13 Chemist, research Cautiousness (.16) .31
16 Clothing designer Tenderness (.42) .52
208 Inspiring teammates Leadership (.37)........................................... .43
209 Being patient with children Sympathy (.32) .43
214 Secretarial duties. Assertiveness (.22) .39
230 Delegating authority Leadership (.36) .43
243 Educating young persons Ingenuity (.35) .46
262 Leading others Leadership (.52)........................................... .60
267 Monitoring machines Sympathy (.29) .42
278 Persuading others to use Leadership (.54) .62
Thus, we can see that many personality facets correlate significantly with career areas and that combining the information from several facets improves these correlations. Personality provides a rich basis for helping match specific persons with specific job duties and jobs.
Big 5/45 Instrument. Introduction
The AB5C was developed by Goldberg as a research instrument. The present author (McConochie) is a clinician and I/O practicioner. He saw potential value in the AB5C as a tool valuable in applied psychology. He developed a personal computer scoring and report preparation system for it. This instrument he named the "Big 5/45" to reflect its content. He also developed a system for predicting oneâ€™s corresponding Career Area Predicted Preferences (CAPPs) scores based on the obtained personality scores.
The author then administered this instrument to several dozen clinical patients, personal friends and relatives.
The author does many evaluations of persons applying for State and Federal welfare benefits by virtue of alleged disabilities. Those with the worst job histories tended to get the lowest scores on the Big 5/45 and had the lowest scores on the 36 career areas of the CAPPs report. Personal friends and relatives of the author usually obtained average to high scores and which seemed to correspond reasonably well with their respective personalities and career and recreational activities.
For example, among a secretaryâ€™s two highest scores were Office Practices and Religious Activities. Two successful business executives had high scores on Management and related career areas such as Law/Politics, Sales and Supervising.
A skilled house painter had low scores on business-related categories but among his highest scores were Mechanical Crafts/Trades, Woodworking and Building/Making Things. He also had a high score on Risk-Taking/Adventuresome Activities. His main hobby is riding a motor cycle around the country for several weeks at a time between periods of employment.
A woman whose two highest scores included Religious Activities said she had always secretly wanted to be a nun.
The scores did not always directly correlate with a given personâ€™s current career and avocational activities, but often they did. The scores thus provided the author with what appeared to be richly meaningful information with which to understand and guide clients in terms of employability and career choice.
Validation Study of CAPPs scores
To further validate the CAPPs scores as a measure of a personâ€™s potential career areas, the author conducted studies.
He created career area scores based on the Big 5/45 scores and the known correlations between them and career areas. They are expressed as a ratio of a personâ€™s obtained score over the highest possible score for that career area. Personality traits of the Big 5/45 which correlate significantly with a career areas are used to generate the denominator of this ratio score. A given personâ€™s obtained personality scores are used to generate his numerator scores. The higher or lower his personality scores on facets that correlate significantly (positively or negatively) with a career area, the higher his numerator. Thus, CAPPs scores on each career area can range from 0 to 1.00.
The author tried several different initial scoring formulas, checking each by running correlations between the obtained scores and self-ratings by a sample of 8 persons.
Reports for 8 adults were prepared with the chosen scoring system. These subjects were asked to rate their estimated skill on the 36 career areas on a 5-point Likert scale. Correlations were then computed across all 8 persons and all 36 areas. The correlations were between the CAPPs score and self ratings. Thus, the correlation computed was based on 288 pairs of scores (self-ratings versus CAPPs scores, 8 x 36). The results of this study are as follow:
Mean Range Standard Deviation KR-21 Reliability
Self-ratings 2.719 1 to 5 1.47 .73
CAPPs scores 56.75 0 to 100 24.672 .97
Correlation between Self-rating and CAAPs score = .294 (significance level = .000). Corrected for attenuation = .35. This result provides evidence that these initial CAPPs scores were valid indicators of a personâ€™s corresponding self-ratings.
Expansion of the CAPPs Career Areas from 36 to 341
One reason the correlation between these inital CAPPs scores and self ratings is modest (.35) may be the rather gross nature of the career areas as presented, e.g. "Law/ or Political Careers", "Sales Careers", "Medical Service Careers". The CISS report presents scores on only 36 career areas. All medical careers are subsumed under one heading: "Medical Service Careers". In this score there is no differentiation between orderlies and surgeons, pediatricians and LPNs, or between family practicioners and specialists. Thus, a person might be very interested in being a surgeon but have no interest at all in being a nurse. His "Medical Service Careers" score will necessarily be "muddied" by this ambivalence.
Thus, the author undertook an expansion of the CAPPs system to include many specific careers. Descriptions for several hundred careers appearing prominently in the U.S. economy, as presented at a Department of Labor web site (4), were used to select 305 of the most representative careers, including 27 separate medical service careers. Descriptions of these were prepared in a document totaling 31 pages in a format permitting 4-point Likert scale endorsement (very unskillful, unskillful, skillful, very skillful) (the "Job Skills Rating Form").
A sample of 201 adults was administered this document and the Big 5/45 personality instrument over an Internet web site (Funeducation.com), with whom the author collaborates. This sample of persons was told they would get free reports of all their scores for participating. They ranged in age from 16 to 64. Their mean age was 34.3 with a standard deviation of 10.3. 63% were women. As a group, they were somewhat below average on Conscientiousness, compared to the Goldberg normative sample. They were above average on Extroversion and a full standard deviation above average on Intellect. They were average on Agreeableness and Emotional Stability.
SPSS computer software was used to process the data. Correlations were computed between the 50 personality scores and 305 career areas (15,250 correlations) and CAPPs scores (50 x 36 = 1800 correlations).
The scores on the personality traits tended to mirror those on the Goldberg sample, in that the standard deviations were similar. Thus, the reliabilities of the 50 personality measures are assumed to be similar to those reported above for the Goldberg sample. Of equal importance, the job item scores were nicely distributed across the four points allowed in the Likert scale, with means typically between 2 and 3 and standard deviations of about 1. Thus, the Job Skill Self Rating items were assumed to have adequate reliabilities.
The resulting correlations between the 305 jobs and 50 personality traits were as richly informative as they had been for the Goldberg study of the 36 CISS career areas. The number of personality traits correlating significantly with a given job ranged from quite high to low. For example, for the Job 1, President or CEO of an organization, 31 of the 50 personality traits (62%) correlated significantly with the skill self-ratings for this trait. The traits and their correlations, almost all of which are significant at the .01 level, are:
1. .30 Gregariousness
2. .30 Friendliness
3. .53 Assertiveness
4. .40 Poise
5. .55 Leadership
6. .45 Provocativeness
8. .55 Talkativeness
10. .44 EXTROVERSION TOTAL
13. -.18 Morality
16. -.28 Cooperation
19. -.28 Nurturance
22. .30 Efficiency
24. .39 Purposefulness
25. .29 Organization
27. .22 Rationality
30. .20 CONSCIENTIOUSNESS TOTAL
31. .30 Stability
32. .34 Happiness
33. .17 Calmness
34. .22 Moderation
35. .28 Toughness
37. .31 Imperturbability
39. .17 Tranquility
40. .28 STABILITY TOTAL
41. .38 Intellect
42. .48 Ingenuity
44. .49 Competence
45. .44 Quickness
47. .48 Creativity
50. .41 INTELLECT TOTAL
The multiple correlation (R) for these traits was .79, significant at the .000 level.
For some jobs the number of significantly correlating traits was much fewer. For job 105, Surgeon, only six traits correlate significantly (Friendliness, Dutifulness, Organization, Orderliness, Conscientiousness Total, and Tranquility). All correlations are positive except for Tranquility. The multiple R was .28, significant at the .02 level. For job number 115, Veterinarian, 9 traits correlate significantly, 6 of them negatively. The multiple R is .38, significant at the .01 level. Thus, it will be important to consider the Confidence Weights (percentage of personality traits correlating with a job) when interpreting a given personâ€™s CAPPs scores in the expanded version of the report.
Additional Validity Data
The data of this study provided a basis for a further validation of the authorâ€™s initial system for predicting preferred career areas from personality scores. Correlations were run between the 36 CAPPs predicted career area preferences scores (based on the Big 5/45 scores) and self-ratings on a variety of related specific careers from among the 305 in the jobs form. The resulting correlations were robustly rewarding, for the most part. For example, for the first CAPPs score, "Managing/ Planning/ Influencing job activities", the correlations with self-rated skill in related specific management careers were as follow:
Job Number, Correlation, Title
(All correlations significant at .01 level except for jobs 2 and 12, which are not significant.)
1. .51 Organization President or CEO
2. .12 Chief Financial Officer
3. .27 H.R. Manager
4. .22 Production Manager
5. .39 Public Relations Manager
6. .36 Marketing and Sales Manager
7. .36 Owner/Operator of Small Family-owned Business.
8. .30 Politician
10. .30 School Administrator
11. .25 Hotel Executive
12. .01 Funeral Director.
For CAPPs area 2, "Law/Politics", correlations with self-rated skills in related jobs were:
(All significant at .01 level except Paralegal, not significant.)
8. .46 Politician
62. .43 Lawyer
63. .44 Judge/Magistrate
64. .14 Paralegal
65. .26 Title Examiner
For CAPPs area 4, "Public Speaking", note the following:
(** = Significant at .01, * at .05.)
1. .55** President/CEO
2. .34** Politician
3. .08 Clergy
4. .37** Judge/Magistrate
5. .29** High school teacher
6. .38** College teacher
7. .30** Actor/Dancer
8. .34** Sales Representative
23. .21* Computer programmer
24. .14 Surveyor
25. .17* Chemist
Notice that the correlations for careers in which public speaking is expected to be important are usually significant at the .01 level and are higher than for careers in which public speaking is not expected to be important (programmer, surveyor and chemist). The low correlation for Clergy is puzzling.
For the CAPPs area "Sales", the following correlations are found:
155. .16 Retail sales
156. .44** Advertizing sales
157. .26** Insurance sales
158. .26** Security sales
159. .32** Travel agent
160. .35** Sales representative
161. .26** Product demonstrator/promoter
162. .27** Real estate sales
163. .13 Telemarketer
164. .27** Door-to-door sales
Thus, most sales-related job skills are clearly related to the "Sales" score generated by the scoring system. The fact that some specific careers are not related to the "Sales" category points up the importance of expanding the CAPPs system to predict not just general career skills, such as "Sales" or "Public Speaking" but to predict each specific career itself. This provides a sounder basis for identifying the personality profiles unique to each specific career, such as Clergy, Retail Sales Clerk and Telemarketer, which are not well predicted by the general CAPPs areas of "Public Speaking" and "Sales".
The importance of this was evident in similar analyses for other job groups. The "Advertizing/Marketing" CAPPs score did correlate significantly at the .01 level with specific jobs of Marketing/Sales Manager, Radio/T.V. Announcer, Ad Sales Agent, Commercial Artist and Creative Writer. However, the CAPPâ€™s score "Financial Services correlated significantly with Accountant , Tax Preparer and Tax Examiner but not with C.F.O., Loan Officer, Cashier, Security Sales, Bill Collector, Bookkeeper or Teller.
The "Office Practices" CAPPs score predicted Office Machine Operator (.18*) but not Bookkeeing, Loan Clerk, Computer Operator, Word Processor/Typist, Data Entry Keyer, Clerk, Insurance Claims Clerk or Proofreader.
Thus, there is need to predict these other specific jobs directly from personality profile scores.
This mixed performance was also evident in the medical careers area. The CAPPs score for "Medical Services" correlated significantly at the .01 level with Dietician/Nutritionist, G.P./Family Doctor, Psychiatrist, Physical Therapist, Respiratory Therapist, Speech Therapist and Emergency Medical Technician, and at the .05 level with Pharmacist, Optometrist, Anaesthesiologist, Pediatrician, Obstetrician/Gynecologist, Surgeon, Surgical Technician and Occupational Therapist, but not with Registered Nurse, Licensed Practical Nurse, Medical Lab Technician or 9 other medical careers, including Dentist and Dental Hygienist.
Thus, again, we see the need for predicting specific medical careers separately rather than as a group.
This mixed performance was also evident in the trades area. The CAPPs score for "Mechanical Crafts and Trades" correlated with most specific trades jobs but not with a few:
218. .24** Rebar, Reinforcing Iron Worker
219. .23** Sheet Metal Worker
228 .36** Office Machine Repair
229 .23** Telephone Equipment Installation and Repair
231 .33** Electrical Motor Repair
233. .34** Aircraft Mechanic
234. .32** Auto Mechanic
235. .29** Bus and Truck Mechanic
236. .29** Mobile Heavy Equipment Mechanic
237. .24* Millwright
238. .15 Engine and Machine Assembler
239. .28** Machinist
240. .27** Tool and Die Maker
241. .13 Job Printer
242. .12 Printing Machine Operator
The original CAPPs score for "Animal Care", is one of the weakest for predicting skills in specific jobs, having a Confidence Weight of only .18. Only 18 percent of the 50 personality trait measures correlate significantly with this career area score. As might be expected, this score does not correlate significantly with many of the specific job skill scores:
115. .04 Veterinarian
116. .13 Veterinarian Technologist
117. .14 Animal Control Worker
118. .12 Animal Caretaker
119. .23** Farm and Ranch Animal Worker
Case Studies...Validity Information
A sense of the validity of CAPPs reports is also gleaned from examining reports for known individuals. For example, an experienced secretary, with over 10 years of successful employment as a secretary and paralegal and with invitations to be an office manager, had highest scores on the following career areas and jobs, all above .60:
Office Practices .68
Helping Job Duties .60
Religious Activities .63
Culinary Arts/Cooking .61
Animal Care .65
Production Manager .67
family business .64
Purchasing agent .71
Insurance underwriter .66
Biological or chemical
Title examiner .63
Adult remedial ed.
Technical writer .64
Respiratory therapist .60
Medical and clinical lab.
Radiologic tech. .66
Medical records tech. .71
Retail sales or parts .65
Billing and posting clerk
Library assistant .69
Loan clerk .67
Order or stock clerk .90
Executive secretary .68
Computer operator .68
Word processor or typist
Data entry keyer .73
Mail clerk .66
Insurance claims clerk .79
Office machine operator
Cooking machine operator
Sewing machine operator
Furniture and cabinet finisher
Of interest in this list are the many occupations directly and indirectly related to the job of secretary or office worker.
Upgrading and Expanding the CAPPs Report
The correlations between the 50 personality traits and 305 job self-ratings were entered into the CAPPs portion of the report preparation computer program, extending the CAPPs report to a total of 341 predicted career areas of greatest skill/satisfaction based on personality scores (the original 36 CISS areas and the additional 305).
An improved scoring system for computing ratio scores was devised by trying formulas and testing them against self-ratings by the 201 adultsâ€™ job skill ratings for a few careers. Two formulas were found to be superior to the third. The simplest of these to compute is now used to calculate predicted skill level for each of the 36 CISS job areas and the 305 specific jobs in the CAPPs report. For one of the jobs tested the correlation between the computed score and self-ratings for 201 persons was .32, significant at the .01 level.
The Big 5/45 with CAPPs report is intended for use to aid self-understanding and career planning. Knowing oneâ€™s personality profile in detail can help one understand oneself. Knowing the profiles of oneâ€™s spouse or partner or child can also improve understanding and awareness. We can be more tolerant of each other if we know that our behaviors are shaped largely by our unique personality profiles.
Some of us are innately more conscientious than others. Laziness is not simply "disobedience". Some of us are destined for highly responsible roles as leaders, by virtue of our very high scores on many personality facets. Indeed, combined with intellectual aptitudes and training, our personalities largely determine who we are and who we have the potential to become. Knowing ourselves well can help guide us into our most fulfilling lives, both in terms of careers and hobbies.
1. Go to Researchers, Goldberg, IPIP scales.
2. Goldbert, Lewis R., The Comparative Validity of Modern Personality Inventories: Applications of a Consumer-Testing Framework, Oregon Research Institute, 2003, E-mail email@example.com
3. Campbell, David P., Hyne, Susan A. and Nilsen, Dianne L., "Manual, CISS, Campbell Interest and Skills Survey.", NCS, Minneapolis, MN, 1992.
Appendix I . AB5C Facets.
Facet Name: Number of items: Reliability: Sample descriptive phrase item:
1. Gregariousness 10 .83 Am the life of the party.
2. Friendliness 10 .85 Make friends easily.
3. Assertiveness 12 .75 Turn plans into actions.
4. Poise 10 .82 Feel comfortable around people.
5. Leadership 10 .82 Am the first to act.
6. Provocativeness 11 .72 Dare to say anything.
7. Self-disclosure 10 .78 Am open about myself to others.
8. Talkativeness 10 .84 Do most of the talking.
9. Sociability 10 .66 Enjoy being part of a loud crowd.
10. Extro. total 93 .96
11. Understanding 10 .81 Like to be of service to others.
12. Warmth 11 .84 Know how to comfort others.
13. Morality 12 .73 Would never cheat on my taxes.
14. Pleasantness 12 .76 Have a good word for everyone.
15. Empathy 9 .70 Sense othersâ€™ wishes.
16. Cooperation 12 .73 Value cooperation over competition.
17. Sympathy 12 .74 Am concerned about others.
18. Tenderness 13 .74 Want to mean something to others.
19. Nurturance 13 .71 Wouldnâ€™t harm a fly.
20. Agree. total 104 .96
21. Conscientiousness 13 .75 Accomplish my work on time.
22. Efficiency 11 .83 Make plans and stick to them.
23. Dutifulness 13 .78 Behave properly.
24. Purposefulness 12 .81 Am not easily distracted.
25. Organization 12 .78 Have an eye for detail.
26. Cautiousness 12 .77 Take precautions.
27. Rationality 14 .67 Do things in a logical order.
28. Perfectionism 9 .76 Continue until everything is perfect.
29. Orderliness 10 .78 Like order.
30. Conscientiousness Total 106 .98
31. Stability 10 .86 Seldom get mad.
32. Happiness 10 .84 Look at the bright side of life.
33. Calmness 10 .83 Take things as they come.
34. Moderation 10 .76 Easily resist temptations.
35. Toughness 12 .84 Can stand criticism.
36. Impulse Control 11 .78 Let others finish what they are saying.
37. Imperturbability 9 .84 Seldom get emotional.
38. Cool-headedness 10 .73 (Donâ€™t) try to impress others.
39. Tranquility 11 .76 Am relaxed most of the time.
40. Stability Total 93 .96
41. Intellect 11 .81 Have a rich vocabulary.
42. Ingenuity 9 .84 Have excellent ideas.
43. Reflection 10 .75 Take time to reflect on things.
44. Competence 8 .74 Learn quickly.
45. Quickness 10 .84 Can handle complex problems.
46. Introspection 12 .71 Enjoy contemplation.
47. Creativity 10 .81 Like to solve complex problems.
48. Imagination 10 .78 Have a vivid imagination.
49. Depth 9 .77 Tend to analyze things.
50. Intellect Total 89 .91
Total Personality Score 485 .98
Appendix II. Percent of 50 AB5C Scale Scores Correlating Significantly with CISS scales.
Career Category Percent of Significant Correlations
Public Speaking 62
Organizing/Managing ...................... 68
Financial Services 68
Office Practices 54
Helping Job Duties........................... 70
Adult Development/Teaching 64
Child Development/Care/Teaching 56
Religious Activities 24
Medical Services 28
Performing Arts 62
International Activities 48
Culinary Arts/Cooking 54
Analyzing ........................................ 68
Mechanical Crafts/Trades 62
Woodworking Crafts/Trades 48
Plant and Garden Care 38
Animal Care 18
Adventuresome Activities ................ 64
Athletics/Physical Fitness 48
Military/Law Enforcement 66
Risk-taking/Adventuresome Activ. 54
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